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Course Code: 
PHAR 321
Course Period: 
Autumn
Course Type: 
Core
P: 
4
Lab: 
4
Credits: 
6
ECTS: 
7
Course Language: 
English
Course Objectives: 
The aim of this course is to provide theoretical and practical information about drugs of natural origin.
Course Content: 

 

a)Therotical part: The lectures will focus on the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances, or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin.

b)Laboratory applications: Assays on the microscopic properties of some important medicinal plants as well as the identification of some primer and secondary metabolites in herbal drugs will be implemented.

Course Methodology: 
1: Lecture, 2: Question-Answer, 3: Discussion, 4: Presentation, 5:Simulation, 6: Video, 7: Applications, 8:Case Study
Course Evaluation Methods: 
A:Written exam, B: multiple chose , C:Filing the blank D:False and troth, E: Oral Exam F: Portfolio, G: Contrabution of course activities H:Homework

Vertical Tabs

Course Learning Outcomes

Learning Outcomes

Programme learning outcomes

Teaching Methods

Assessment Methods

1) Defines the term “Pharmacognosy” and the main research areas of Pharmacognosy

1

1,2,3

A,C

2) Knows the quality standards for herbal drugs.

6, 7

1,2,3,7

A,C

3) Describes primary and secondary metabolites. Differentiate secondary metabolites from primary metabolites. Defines the basic metabolic pathways

14

1,2,3,7

A,C

4) Lists the plant phenolic compounds

1

1,2,3,7

A,C

5) Describes the basic structures of the polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, isoflavonoids, anthocyanins, tannins, xanthones and quinones. 

6, 7

1,2,3,7

A,C

6) Lists the polyphenolic compounds containing medicinal plants. 

6, 7

1,2,3

A,C,H

7) Knows how to find the recent scientific knowledge about pharmacognosy and natural products as well as how to interpret, review and present these data. 

2, 4,8

1,2,3,4

A,C

 
 

Course Flow

Week

Teorical Topics                                     

Lab content

Study Materials

1

INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOGNOSY, HISTORY OF PHARMACOGNOSY

DEMONSTRATION

 

2

PRODUCTION OF CRUDE DRUGS

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF STARCH AND FLOWER DRUGS

 

3

QUALITY CONTROLS  IN HERBAL DRUGS

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALS IN SOME DRUGS

 

4

BASIC BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS

PRIMARY METABOLITES; CARBOHYDRATES-MONOSACCHARIDES

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF OIL GLOBULES, MUCILAGES, AND ALEURONES IN HERBAL DRUGS 

 

5

BASIC MONOSACCHARIDES

MONOSACCHARIDES  AND OLIGOSACCHARIDES USED IN PHARMACY

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF STOMATA IN SOME DRUGS

 

6

POLYSACCHARIDES; HOMOGEN POLYSACCHARIDES

HETEROGEN POLYSACCHARIDES; GUMS, MUCILAGES AND PECTINS

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF GLANDULAR TRICHOMES AND OTHER GLANDULAR ORGANS IN DRUGS

 

7

LIPIDS

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF FIBRES, VESSELS CORK AND SCLEREIDS IN DRUGS

 

8

LIPID-RELATED COMPOUNDS

AMINO ACIDS, PEPTIDS, ENZYMES AND PROTEINS

IDENTIFICATION OF AN UNKNOWN DRUG BY MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION

 

9

LECTINS, CYANOGENETIC GLYCOSIDES, GLUCOSINOLATES AND BETALAINS

PRACTICAL EXAM

 

10

INTRODUCTION TO PHENOLICS

PHENOLIC ACIDS, COUMARINS AND LIGNANS

DEMONSTRATION

 

11

FLAVONOIDS

DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOLIC AND TOTAL FLAVONOID CONTENT IN HYPERICI HERBA

 

12

ISOFLAVONOIDS, ANTHOCYANINS, TANNINS

IDENTIFICATION REACTIONS FOR GLYCOSIDES AND SOME SECONDARY METABOLITES

 

13

QUINONIC COMPOUNDS, BENZOQUINONES, NAPHTOQUINONES, ANTRAQUINONES

PHLOROGLUCINOLS AND ORCINOLS

EXTRACTION OF AESCIN FROM THE SEEDS OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM

 

14

SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHARMACOGNOSY (STUDENT LECTURES)

MAKE-UP

 

15

SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHARMACOGNOSY (STUDENT LECTURES)

 

 

16

SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHARMACOGNOSY (STUDENT LECTURES)

 

 

 
 

Recommended Sources

Textbook

Bruneton, Jean (1999) Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants (2. Edition)

Springer-Verlag

Additional Resources

Evans, W.C., (2009) Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, Saunders Elsevier (16th edition)

 
 

Material Sharing

Documents

Lecture notes (Prof. Dr. Hasan Kırmızıbekmez and Prof. Dr. Erdem Yeşilada) 

Assignments

Relevant papers and textbooks

Exams

 
 

Assessment

IN-TERM STUDIES

NUMBER

PERCENTAGE

Midterm  Exam

2

55

Short Exam

   

Lab.

1

15

Lab.Exam

1

30

Total

 

100

CONTRIBUTION OF FINAL EXAMINATION TO OVERALL GRADE

 

40

CONTRIBUTION OF IN-TERM STUDIES TO OVERALL GRADE

 

60

Total

 

100

 

 

COURSE CATEGORY

Compulsary

 
 

Course’s Contribution to Program

No

Program Learning Outcomes

Contribution

1

2

3

4

5

1

Acquire skills needed to practice the profession of pharmacy in either a Turkish or an English language setting.

   

x

   

2

Being equipped to access current theoretical and applied knowledge, keeping abreast of new developments, and possessing the critical faculties enabling an accurate and reliable interpretation and assessment of this information.

       

x

3

Having the capacity to apply the skills acquired in the field of pharmaceutical science. Possessing the ability to harness his/her acquired knowledge in order to function as a highly accessible health counsellor, providing a ready source of clinically relevant, health-related information to the general public.

       

x

4

Keeping abreast of and being equipped to apply the fundamental pharmaceutical and health science principles which guide future developments in modern technology, and being able to share these experiences and skills with colleagues through participatation in professional development education seminars.

     

x

 

5

Knowing how to assess risks arising from the use of drugs and other chemicals and those risks potentially encounterd during laboratory practice.

   

x

   

6

Acquiring the skills and knowledge needed to interpret findings obtained through quantative and qualitative measurements, and thus reach valid, scientific conclusions based on this data. 

     

x

 

7

Being able to compound pharmaceutical products while being knowledgable about their clinical application, interactions, side effects and risks  and apply in proper manner .

   

x

   

8

Being competent to conduct and manage research and development projects, and share experimental outcomes.

     

x

 

9

Be competent to accurately and intelligibly communicate clincally relevant information to patients concerning prescription items and other pharmaceutical products.  

   

x

   

10

Being able to function in a multidisciplinary environment. Possessing the skill to collaborate and establish lines of communication with other professionals, while developing their own professional competency through participation in relevant continuing education activities.

   

x

   

11

Being able to play a role in projects which fulfills the profession’s societal responsibilities. Participating in professional activities and undertaking duties in a manner which reflects an awareness of and sensitivity to environmental issues.

   

x

   

12

Being capable of opening a community pharmacy, practicing in a hospital pharmacy setting, and offering service in any field related to drugs, cosmetics, medical  and/or plant-derived products. Able to play an active role in his/her own personal professional development, as well as that of colleagues and pharmaceutical students.

     

x

 

13

Able to play a role in issues related to public health as a member of the health care team while being cognizant of and able to fulfill legal and professional requirements and maintain ethical standards. 

     

x

 

14

Is knowledgable of and equipped to manage the planning, development, compounding and quality control analysis of naturally occuring and synthetic medicines, while also being aware of the processes related to these products’ absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion from the body.

       

x

 
 

ECTS

Activities

Quantity

Duration
(Hour)

Total
Workload
(Hour)

Course Duration (Including the exam week: 16x Total course hours)

16

4

64

Hours for off-the-classroom study (Pre-study, practice)

16

1

16

Midterm Exams

2

1

2

Lab. Applications

16

4

64

Hours for off-the-Lab. study (Pre-study, practice)

16

1

16

Lab. Midterm Exam

1

1

1

Lab. Final

1

1

1

Homework (Assignment)

1

5

5

Final

1

2

2

Total Work Load

 

 

171

Total Work Load / 25 (h)

 

 

6.8

ECTS Credit of the Course

 

 

7