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Course Code: 
PHAR 322
Course Period: 
Spring
Course Type: 
Core
P: 
4
Lab: 
4
Credits: 
6
ECTS: 
7
Course Language: 
English
Course Objectives: 
The aim of this course, the continuation of Pharmacognosy I, is to provide theoretical and practical information about drugs of natural origin.
Course Content: 

a)Therotical part: The lectures will cover the secondary metabolites mainly, terpenoids, steroids and alkaloids. Moreover, the knowledge about peptides, proteins, vitamins and minerals will also be provided.

b)Laboratory applications: Some assays for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oils, fixed oil and alkaloids in herbal drugs will be implemented.

Course Methodology: 
1: Lecture, 2: Question-Answer, 3: Discussion, 4: Presentation, 5:Simulation, 6: Video, 7: Applications, 8:Case Study
Course Evaluation Methods: 
A:Written exam, B: multiple chose , C:Filing the blank D:False and troth, E: Oral Exam F: Portfolio, G: Contrabution of course activities H:Homework

Vertical Tabs

Course Learning Outcomes

Learning Outcomes

Programme learning outcomes

Teaching Methods

Assessment Methods

1) Describes the terpenic and steroidal compounds of natural origin

1

1,2,3

A,C

2) Defines the term “essential oil”

Knows the use of essential oil bearing medicinal and aromatic plants.

6, 7, 12

1,2,3,7

A,C

3) Defines the terms “Iridoid, sesquiterpene, diterpene and saponin” and lists the important medicinal plants containig these metabolites.

7, 14

1,2,3,7

A,C

4) Defines the plant originated compounds used for the semisynthesis of steroidal drugs. 

1, 12

1,2,3,7

A,C

5) Knows the effects of cardiac glycosides, their mechanisms of action as well as plants containing cardiac glycosides.

7, 9

1,2,3,7

A,C

6) Defines the term “alkaloid”.

Knows the significance of drug substances of alkaloid origin.

1, 7

1,2,3

A,C

7) Defines the extraction, characterization and biological activities of alkaloids. Knows the alkaloid containing medicinal and toxic plants.

2, 4, 8

1,2,3,7

A,C

8) Knows the steps for drug discovery from natural sources

1, 2

1,2,3,4

A,C,H

9) Knows how to find the recent scientific knowledge about pharmacognosy and natural products as well as how to interpret, review and present these data. 

2, 4,8

1,2,3,4

A,C

 
 

Course Flow

Week

Teorical Topics                                      

Lab content

Study Materials

1

INTRODUCTION TO TERPENOIDS AND STEROIDS

BIOSYNTHESIS OF TERPENES AND THEIR PRECURSORS

 MONOTERPENE AND SESQUITERPENE LACTONE CONTAINING PLANTS

DEMONSTRATION

 

2

ESSENTIAL OILS, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OILS

METHODS USED FOR THE ISOLATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS

QUANTATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FIXED OILS IN VEGETABLE DRUGS

DETERMINATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FIXED OILS

 

3

 LAMIACEAE, ASTERACEAE AND RUTACEAE PLANTS CONTAINING ESSENTIAL OILS

OTHER PLANTS CONTAINING ESSENTIAL OILS 

OLEORESINS AND BALSAMS

ACID AND SAPONIFICATION VALUES FOR FIXED OILS

 

4

IRIDOIDS AND IRIDOID CONTAINING PLANTS

DITERPENES, IMPORTANT DITERPENES AND THEIR SOURCES

DETERMINATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS IN VEGETABLE DRUGS

DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOL CONTENT IN ORIGANI OIL

 

5

TRITERPENES AND STEROIDS

SAPONINS AND SAPONIN CONTAINING PLANTS

QUANTATIVE ANALYSIS OF TOTAL ALCOHOL CONTENT IN PEPPERMINT OIL

 

6

CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND MECHANISMS OF ACTIONS

CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES CONTAINING MEDICINAL AND TOXIC PLANTS

QUANTATIVE ANALYSIS OF TOTAL ALDEHYDE CONTENT IN LEMON OIL

 

7

OTHER STEROIDS AND TRITERPENES

CAROTENOIDS  AND CAROTENOID  CONTAINING PLANTS

DEMONSTRASYON

 

8

ALKALOIDS: DEFINITION, CLASSIFICATION, EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION, BIOSYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

DETERMINATION OF ROSMARINIC ACID CONTENT IN CERTAIN LAMIACEAE SPECIES BY HPTLC-DENSITOMETRY

 

9

TROPANE AND PYRROLIZIDINE ALKOLOIDS

MIDTERM

 

10

QUINOLIZIDINE AND PIPERIDINE ALKALOIDS

ALKALOIDS DERIVATED FROM PHENYLALANINE AND TYROSINE

EXTRACTION OF CAFFEINE FROM TEA LEAVES

 

11

ISOQUINOLINE ALKALOIDS, MONOTERPENOID INDOLE ALKALOIDS, b-CARBOLINE ALKALOIDS

IDENTIFICATION REACTION FOR CAFFEINE AND PHARMACOPOEIA ANALYSIS OF CAFFEINE

 

12

ERGOLINE ALKALOIDS, IMIDAZOLE ALKALOIDS

QUANTATIVE ANALYSIS OF TROPANE ALKALOID CONTENT IN BELLADONNA LEAVES

 

13

TERPENOID ALKALOIDS

PURINE BASES

DRUG DISCOVERY FROM NATURAL SORUCES

QUANTATIVE ANALYSIS OF TOTAL ALKALOID CONTENT IN CINCHONA BARK

 

14

STUDENT PRESENTATIONS

MAKE-UP

 

15

STUDENT PRESENTATIONS

 

 

16

STUDENT PRESENTATIONS

 

 

 
 

Recommended Sources

Textbook

Bruneton, Jean (1999) Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants (2. Edition)

Springer-Verlag

Additional Resources

Evans, W.C., (2009) Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, Saunders Elsevier (16th edition)

 
 

Material Sharing

Documents

Lecture notes (Prof. Dr. Hasan Kırmızıbekmez) 

Assignments

Relevant papers and textbooks

Exams

 
 

 

 

Assessment

IN-TERM STUDIES

NUMBER

PERCENTAGE

Midterm  Exam

2

55

Short Exam

   

Lab. (Assignment)

1

15

Lab.Final

1

30

Total

 

100

CONTRIBUTION OF FINAL EXAMINATION TO OVERALL GRADE

 

40

CONTRIBUTION OF IN-TERM STUDIES TO OVERALL GRADE

 

60

Total

 

100

 

 

COURSE CATEGORY

Compulsary

 
 

Course’s Contribution to Program

No

Program Learning Outcomes

Contribution

1

2

3

4

5

 

1

Acquire skills needed to practice the profession of pharmacy in either a Turkish or an English language setting.

   

x

     

2

Being equipped to access current theoretical and applied knowledge, keeping abreast of new developments, and possessing the critical faculties enabling an accurate and reliable interpretation and assessment of this information.

       

x

 

3

Having the capacity to apply the skills acquired in the field of pharmaceutical science. Possessing the ability to harness his/her acquired knowledge in order to function as a highly accessible health counsellor, providing a ready source of clinically relevant, health-related information to the general public.

       

x

 

4

Keeping abreast of and being equipped to apply the fundamental pharmaceutical and health science principles which guide future developments in modern technology, and being able to share these experiences and skills with colleagues through participatation in professional development education seminars.

     

x

   

5

Knowing how to assess risks arising from the use of drugs and other chemicals and those risks potentially encounterd during laboratory practice.

   

x

     

6

Acquiring the skills and knowledge needed to interpret findings obtained through quantative and qualitative measurements, and thus reach valid, scientific conclusions based on this data. 

     

x

   

7

Being able to compound pharmaceutical products while being knowledgable about their clinical application, interactions, side effects and risks  and apply in proper manner .

     

x

   

8

Being competent to conduct and manage research and development projects, and share experimental outcomes.

     

x

   

9

Be competent to accurately and intelligibly communicate clincally relevant information to patients concerning prescription items and other pharmaceutical products.  

   

x

     

10

Being able to function in a multidisciplinary environment. Possessing the skill to collaborate and establish lines of communication with other professionals, while developing their own professional competency through participation in relevant continuing education activities.

     

x

   

11

Being able to play a role in projects which fulfills the profession’s societal responsibilities. Participating in professional activities and undertaking duties in a manner which reflects an awareness of and sensitivity to environmental issues.

   

x

     

12

Being capable of opening a community pharmacy, practicing in a hospital pharmacy setting, and offering service in any field related to drugs, cosmetics, medical  and/or plant-derived products. Able to play an active role in his/her own personal professional development, as well as that of colleagues and pharmaceutical students.

     

x

   

13

Able to play a role in issues related to public health as a member of the health care team while being cognizant of and able to fulfill legal and professional requirements and maintain ethical standards. 

     

x

   

14

Is knowledgable of and equipped to manage the planning, development, compounding and quality control analysis of naturally occuring and synthetic medicines, while also being aware of the processes related to these products’ absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion from the body.

       

x

 
 
 

ECTS

Activities

Quantity

Duration
(Hour)

Total
Workload
(Hour)

Course Duration (Including the exam week: 16x Total course hours)

16

4

64

Hours for off-the-classroom study (Pre-study, practice)

16

1

16

Midterm Exams

2

1

2

Lab. Applications

16

4

64

Hours for off-the-Lab. study (Pre-study, practice)

16

1

16

Lab. Midterm Exam

1

1

1

Lab. Final

1

1

1

Homework (Assignment)

1

5

5

Final

1

2

2

Total Work Load

 

 

171

Total Work Load / 25 (h)

 

 

6.8

ECTS Credit of the Course

 

 

7