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Course Code: 
PHAR 312
Course Period: 
Spring
Course Type: 
Core
P: 
4
Lab: 
3
Credits: 
4
ECTS: 
6
Course Language: 
English
Course Objectives: 
The aim of this course is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge to pharmacy students about the general principles of toxicology; the factors which affect toxicity; the fate of xenobiotics in the body; hazards of drugs, chemical, biological and physical factors on the body and the study of these hazards on macro and molecular basis; toxicological risk assessment to determine safe limits.
Course Content: 

 

a)Therotical part

In this course, general knowledge about toxicology; dose-response relationship; factors and mechanism of toxicity; risk assessment and management; toxicokinetics; the importance of biotransformation reactions for toxicity; carcinegenesis process; mutation and genetic toxicology; developmental and reproductive toxic effects of chemical, biologic and physical factors; food additives and contaminants; plant, animal and mushroom poisonings; toxic effects of metals; immunotoxicological basis of toxic effects; and toxic effects of radiation will be described in this lecture.

b)Laboratory applications

In this course, extraction and analysis of acidic and basic drugs using analytical techniques; determination of volatile substances, metallic poisons, and food additives; DNA isolation; and in vitro cytotoxicity test will be done.

Course Methodology: 
1: Lecture, 2: Question-Answer, 3: Discussion, 4: Presentation, 5:Simulation, 6: Video, 7: Applications, 8:Case Study
Course Evaluation Methods: 
A:Written exam, B: multiple chose , C:Filing the blank D:False and troth, E: Oral Exam F: Portfolio, G: Contrabution of course activities H:Homework

Vertical Tabs

Course Learning Outcomes

Learning Outcomes

Programme learning outcomes

Teaching Methods

Assessment Methods

1) Being able to understand the basic concepts in toxicology.

1, 2, 7, 14

1,2,3

A, B, C, D, G, H

2) Being able to understand the factors which affects and modulate toxicity.

3, 5, 7

1,2,3

A, B, C, D, G, H

3)  Being able to determine safe limit using toxicological risk assessment.

3, 5, 6, 14

1,2,3

A, B, C, D, G, H

4) Being able to understand toxic effects of chemical, biological and physical substances/factors.

3, 5, 6

1,2,3

A, B, C, D, G, H

5) Being able to determine toxic effects on macro and molecular basis, and to be able to do toxicological analysis.

3, 5, 8, 9, 10

1,2,3,6,7

A, B, C, D, G, H

6) Being able to use acquired knowledge for protection of human and environmental health.

3, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13

1,2,3

A, B, C, D, G, H

 
 

Course Flow

Week

Teorical Topics                                     

Lab content

Study Materials

1

Introduction to toxicology

Demonstration I

Study the sources.

2

Factors of toxicity

Demonstration II

Study the sources.

3

Toxicity mechanisms

Determination of salicylates from serum sample with spectrophotometric assay

Study the sources.

4

Risk assessment and management

Isolation of some acide and alkaline drugs from urine sample by liquid-liquid extraction and determination by thin layer chromatography (TLC)

Study the sources.

5

Toxicokinetics

Spectrophotometric determination of paracetamol in plasma

Study the sources.

6

Biotransformation

Isolation and determinaton of some volatile substances from biological sample with microdiffusion technique

Study the sources.

7

Carcinogenesis

Detection and estimation of cyanide in blood

Study the sources.

8

Mutations and genetic toxicology

Direct determination of some metalic poisons in biological samples

Study the sources.

9

Developmental and reproductive toxicology

Determination of food additives in foodstuffs

Study the sources.

10

Food additives and contaminants

DNA isolation from blood samples

Study the sources.

11

Toxicity of natural products

In vitro cytotoxicity test

Study the sources.

12

Toxicity of metals

Skin irritation test

Study the sources.

13

Immunotoxicology

Make up

Study the sources.

14

Toxic effects of radiation

Make up

Study the sources.

15

Evaluation

Evaluation

Study the sources.

 
 

Recommended Sources

Textbook

  1. Timbrel, J.A.; ‘Introduction to Toxicology’, Taylor & Francis, London, 1989.
  2. Lu, F.C., ‘Basic Toxicology: Fundamentals, Target Organs, and Risk Assessment, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, 1991.
  3. Hayes, A.W., ‘Principles and Methods of Toxicology’, Taylor & Frances, Philadelphia, 2001.
  4. Klaassen, C.D., ‘Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology’, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001.
  5. Klaassen, C.D., ‘Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology’, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008.
  6. Hodgson, E. “A Textbook of Modern Toxicology, Wiley-Interscience,  New Jersey, 2004
  7. National Library of Medicine, Toxicology Tutor III, 2009

Additional Resources

Lecture notes

 
 

Material Sharing

Documents

Photocopy shareable.

Assignments

Shareable.

Exams

Not shareable.

 
 

Assessment

IN-TERM STUDIES

NUMBER

PERCENTAGE

Therotic

   

Midterm  Exam

1

45

Short Exam

1

5

Lab

12

30

Lab Final

1

20

Total

 

100

CONTRIBUTION OF TEORIC FINAL EXAMINATION TO OVERALL GRADE

 

40

CONTRIBUTION OF IN-TERM STUDIES TO OVERALL GRADE

 

60

Total

 

100

 

 

COURSE CATEGORY

Compulsary

 
 

Course’s Contribution to Program

No

Program Learning Outcomes

Contribution

1

2

3

4

5

1

Acquire skills needed to practice the profession of pharmacy in either a Turkish or an English language setting.

       

X

2

Being equipped to access current theoretical and applied knowledge, keeping abreast of new developments, and possessing the critical faculties enabling an accurate and reliable interpretation and assessment of this information.

       

X

3

Having the capacity to apply the skills acquired in the field of pharmaceutical science. Possessing the ability to harness his/her acquired knowledge in order to function as a highly accessible health counsellor, providing a ready source of clinically relevant, health-related information to the general public.

       

X

4

Keeping abreast of and being equipped to apply the fundamental pharmaceutical and health science principles which guide future developments in modern technology, and being able to share these experiences and skills with colleagues through participatation in professional development education seminars.

       

X

5

Knowing how to assess risks arising from the use of drugs and other chemicals and those risks potentially encounterd during laboratory practice.

       

X

6

Acquiring the skills and knowledge needed to interpret findings obtained through quantative and qualitative measurements, and thus reach valid, scientific conclusions based on this data. 

       

X

7

Being able to compound pharmaceutical products while being knowledgable about their clinical application, interactions, side effects and risks  and apply in proper manner .

       

X

8

Being competent to conduct and manage research and development projects, and share experimental outcomes.

       

X

9

Be competent to accurately and intelligibly communicate clincally relevant information to patients concerning prescription items and other pharmaceutical products.  

       

X

10

Being able to function in a multidisciplinary environment. Possessing the skill to collaborate and establish lines of communication with other professionals, while developing their own professional competency through participation in relevant continuing education activities.

       

X

11

Being able to play a role in projects which fulfills the profession’s societal responsibilities. Participating in professional activities and undertaking duties in a manner which reflects an awareness of and sensitivity to environmental issues.

       

X

12

Being capable of opening a community pharmacy, practicing in a hospital pharmacy setting, and offering service in any field related to drugs, cosmetics, medical  and/or plant-derived products. Able to play an active role in his/her own personal professional development, as well as that of colleagues and pharmaceutical students.

       

X

13

Able to play a role in issues related to public health as a member of the health care team while being cognizant of and able to fulfill legal and professional requirements and maintain ethical standards. 

       

X

14

Is knowledgable of and equipped to manage the planning, development, compounding and quality control analysis of naturally occuring and synthetic medicines, while also being aware of the processes related to these products’ absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion from the body.

       

X

 
 

ECTS

Activities

Quantity

Duration
(Hour)

Total
Workload
(Hour)

Course Duration (Including the exam week: 16x Total course hours)

15

4

60

Hours for off-the-classroom study (Pre-study, practice)

15

1

15

Midterm Exams

1

5

5

Lab. Applications

15

3

45

Hours for off-the-Lab. study (Pre-study, practice)

15

1

15

Lab. Midterm Exem

1

5

5

Lab. Final

1

10

10

Homework

1

5

5

Final

1

10

10

Total Work Load

 

 

170

Total Work Load / 25 (h)

 

 

6,8

ECTS Credit of the Course

 

 

6